In India, land acquisition refers to the process of acquiring land or property for various purposes such as building infrastructure, industrial or residential development, or public utilities. It is governed by the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (LARR Act).
Under the LARR Act, the government or any private entity seeking to acquire land must follow a certain procedure. The process generally involves:
- Identifying the purpose for which the land is required and the extent of land needed.
- Notifying the public about the proposed acquisition through a public notice in the local newspapers and on the notice board of the concerned authorities.
- Seeking the consent of the affected landowners, if the acquisition is for a public purpose. If the acquisition is for a private company, the consent of the affected landowners is not required.
- Determining the compensation to be paid to the affected landowners. The compensation must be fair and must take into account the market value of the land, the extent of land being acquired, and the losses incurred by the landowners as a result of the acquisition.
- Providing rehabilitation and resettlement benefits to the affected landowners, including assistance in finding alternative employment or compensation for loss of livelihood.
The LARR Act has provisions to ensure that the land acquisition process is transparent and fair to the affected landowners. It also provides for a grievance redressal mechanism to address any issues or disputes that may arise during the acquisition process.